5 International Telecommunication Union Functions
- Coordinates the Use of the Radio Spectrum
- Promotes Cooperative Satellite Orbit Assignment
- Improves Telecommunication Infrastructure
- Develops Worldwide Technical Standards
- Supports Telecommunication Education
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) was originally established as the International Telegraph Union during the Paris International Telegraph Convention of 1865. It is one of the oldest intergovernmental organizations in the world and is now a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN). ITU organizes its activities into three main sectors: radiocommunications (ITU-R), standardization (ITU-T), and development (ITU-D). There are five main functions housed within these sectors. Each one is outlined below.
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1. Coordinates the Use of the Radio Spectrum
Within the radiocommunications sector, the ITU coordinates the international use of the radio spectrum. The ITU attempts to facilitate interference free telecommunication by promoting the rational, efficient, economic, and equitable use of the radio-frequency spectrum among all users. This is managed through the Radio Regulations and Regional Agreements, a set of recommendations that are reviewed and revised at World and Regional Radiocommunication Conferences.
2. Promotes Cooperative Satellite Orbit Assignment
ITU’s work within the radiocommunications sector also promotes cooperative satellite orbit assignment. In addition to facilitating the allocation of radio bands and frequencies used by satellites, the ITU attempts to register the associated orbital paths of satellites to ensure that there is no interference between the radio stations of various countries and the fair and equitable use of such resources.
3. Improves Telecommunication Infrastructure
ITU globally monitors the digital divide, in particular the gender digital divide, to determine who has access to information and communication technology as well as telecommunication systems. ITU is committed to universal access and service. The ITU monitoring goes beyond physical implementation of networks and monitors affordability, access of those with disabilities, and cybersecurity. The ITU reviews available services and makes recommendations regarding the use of Universal Service Obligations Funds (USOFs) to help create more equitable access.
4. Develops Worldwide Technical Standards
ITU recognizes the need for demand-driven, high-quality international standards for telecommunications. To this end, ITU is constantly recruiting members from academia and industry to work in conjunction with international and regional bodies to standardize services and applications. Their goal is to avoid duplication and inconsistencies to achieve interoperability of services and technology. Through the cooperation of its members, ITU is able to compile a set of recommendations that are then distributed in ITU publications.
5. Supports Telecommunication Education
ITU encourages continuing education through seminars, workshops, and the annual ITU Telecom World Event. Membership in ITU is not required to take part in any of the educational programs. The ITU seminars feature high-level presenters, while the workshops allow for peer-to-peer exchange. The Telecom world event features exhibits and forums and is an excellent opportunity to network with others in the telecommunication industry.
ITU is a global platform for the development, standardization, and organization of corporate and governmental telecommunication technology. Its vast membership and influence makes it one of the most significant intergovernmental organizations.